Amber is fossilised tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its colour and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewellery.
Amber is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance. Amber is a macro-molecule by free radical polymerisation of several precursors in the labdane family, e.g. communic acid, cummunol, and biformene. These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes, equipping the organic skeleton with three alkene groups for polymerisation. As amber matures over the years, more polymerisation takes place as well as isomerization reactions, cross-linking and cyclization.
Molecular polymerisation, attributable to excessive pressures and temperatures produced with the aid of overlying sediment, transforms the resin first into copal. Sustained warmth and pressure drives off terpenes and consequences in the formation of amber.
For this to take place, the resin ought to be proof against decay. Many trees produce resin, but in the majority of instances this sediment is broken down by means of physical and biological techniques. Exposure to sunlight, rain, microorganisms (along with bacteria and fungi), and severe temperatures has a tendency to disintegrate resin. For resin to live on lengthy sufficient to grow to be amber, it must be immune to such forces or be produced beneath conditions that exclude them.
Amber is globally distributed, mainly in rocks of Cretaceous age or younger. Historically, the Samland coast west of Königsberg in Prussia was the world's leading source of amber. First mentions of amber deposits here date back to the 12th century. About 90% of the world's extractable amber is still located in that area, which became the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia in 1946.
Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are solid up by means of the waves, and collected by way of hand, dredging, or diving. Elsewhere, amber is mined, each in open works and underground galleries. Then nodules of blue earth must be eliminated and an opaque crust must be wiped clean off, which may be accomplished in revolving barrels containing sand and water. Erosion gets rid of this crust from sea-worn amber.
Caribbean amber, especially Dominican blue amber, is mined through bell pitting, that is risky due to the danger of tunnel fall apart.
The oldest amber recovered dates to the Upper Carboniferous period (320 million years ago). Its chemical composition makes it difficult to match the amber to its producers – it is most similar to the resins produced by flowering plants; however, there are no flowering plant fossils until the Cretaceous, and they were not common until the Upper Cretaceous. Amber becomes abundant long after the Carboniferous, in the Early Cretaceous, 150 million years ago, when it is found in association with insects. The oldest amber with arthropod inclusions comes from the Levant, from Lebanon and Jordan. This amber, roughly 125–135 million years old, is considered of high scientific value, providing evidence of some of the oldest sampled ecosystems.
In Lebanon more than 450 outcrops of Lower Cretaceous amber were discovered by Dany Azar a Lebanese paleontologist and entomologist. Among these outcrops 20 have yielded biological inclusions comprising the oldest representatives of several recent families of terrestrial arthropods. Even older, Jurassic amber has been found recently in Lebanon as well. Many remarkable insects and spiders were recently discovered in the amber of Jordan including the oldest zorapterans, clerid beetles, umenocoleid roaches, and achiliid planthoppers.
Baltic amber or succinite (historically documented as Prussian amber) is found as irregular nodules in marine glauconitic sand, known as blue earth, occurring in the Lower Oligocene strata of Sambia in Prussia (in historical sources also referred to as Glaesaria). After 1945 this territory around Königsberg was turned into Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, where amber is now systematically mined.
It seems, but, to were in part derived from older Eocene deposits and it happens additionally as a derivative section in later formations, which include glacial drift. Relics of an abundant vegetation arise as inclusions trapped inside the amber at the same time as the resin become yet clean, suggesting family members with the plants of Eastern Asia and the southern a part of North America. Heinrich G?Ppert named the not unusual amber-yielding pine of the Baltic forests Pinites succiniter, but because the wood does no longer appear to vary from that of the prevailing genus it's been also referred to as Pinus succinifera. It is incredible, but, that the production of amber was restricted to a unmarried species; and certainly a huge number of conifers belonging to specific genera are represented in the amber-flora.
Amber Healing Properties
Physical Properties of Amber
They may useful resource the feelings, and via their position to help emotional recovery they help to create a extra fine outlook on life.
Their role inside the sacral chakra manner that it this a sturdy stone that will help you to enhance your creativity.
These stones hyperlink the everyday self to the spiritual self.
It is thought to be one of the higher herbal crystals to use for safety from psychic assault.
This golden yellow resin is distinctly defensive against any form of negativity, in particular from psychic assets.
Amber stone has many wonderful traits for healing the physical and emotional body. It is well worth the usage of as it is able to also heal health problems you forgot you had until they are long gone.
|Chemical Formula||Amber is composed of complex organic material without any definitive chemical formula. Its inherent substance can also vary depending on its origination.|
|Colour||Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown|
|Hardness||2 - 2.5|
|Refractive Index||1.539 - 1.545|
|SG||1.0 - 1.1|
|Transparency||Transparent to nearly opaque|