Knowing lymph node cancer, types, risk factors, to symptoms

Lymphoma or lymph node cancer is one of the rare blood cancers. Although rare, this cancer can affect anyone.

Although it can be cured, this cancer can cause death if not recognized early on.

So what is lymphoma?

The Chairperson of the Indonesian Association of Hematology and Blood Transfusion (PHTDI) and the Association of Hematology-Oncology in Indonesian Internal Medicine (PERHOMPEDIN), Dr. Tubagus Djumhana Atmakusuma, SpOMD KHOM, FINASIM, lymphoma is one type of cancer that develops in white blood cells called lymphocytes.

Lymphocytes are part of the body's immune system which plays a major role in protecting the body from infection or disease.

"Now, as mentioned before, lymphoma cancer attacks the lymph nodes (KGB), while the KGB is all over our body in the bloodstream. That's why sometimes it is also called blood cancer," Djumhana said in an event titled New Hope For Hodgkin's Lymphoma Cancer Patients with Innovative Therapy in Jakarta, Wednesday (11/13/2019).

Mechanically, lymphoma cancer occurs when B or T lymphocytes - white blood cells that maintain endurance - become abnormal by dividing faster than ordinary cells or living longer than usual.

To note that lymph nodes are lymphocytes the size of peanuts and other immune system cells.

"Lymph nodes that exist throughout the body, including in the chest, stomach, or pelvis also exist beside the neck and around the head. These lymph nodes are connected to each other by the lymphatic system of vessels," he said.

Knowing lymph node cancer, types, risk factors, to symptoms
Credits: Pixabay
Types of lymphomas

In general, lymphoma disorders are divided into two groups, namely Hodgkin's lymphoma (LH) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

"Of course there is a difference between Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, especially the characteristics and types of treatment," said Djumhana.

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Cancer Hodgkin's lymphoma (LH) is a disease that attacks the lymph nodes, commonly there is swelling in the neck and head.

The prevalence of LH cases is around 20 percent of all lymphoma cases, with a presentation of around 60 percent (of the Indonesian population) new cases per year and 40 percent of people with lymphoma die per year.

Although the data in Indonesia itself has not been researching related to the age of this LH sufferer, in the United States this LH case occurs with a peak of young adults age 20-24 years and old age 75-79 years.

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cancer, patients may experience swollen (lumps) of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, groin or other areas.

The prevalence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases constitutes the majority of all lymphoma cases.

The incidence of cases tends to increase from year to year and also according to age.

In fact, data from Globocan in 2012 was estimated as the most cancer in Indonesia in number six in the male category and number seven in the female category.

Risk

Factors regarding the risk factors between the two types of lymphoma are almost the same, namely as follows:
  • Shortness or fatigue
  • Itching of the skin
  • Age, the older the risk of lymphoma
  • Gender, men are taller than women
  • Race/ethnicity, Caucasian people are more vulnerable
  • Socioeconomic, developed countries have a higher risk of lymphoma
  • Exposure, solar radiation, and chemicals.
  • Immune, immunocompromised or autoimmune disorders (weakened immune system)
  • Infections, such as EVB, Herpes, HIV, H pylori, C jejuni become more vulnerable.
  • Obesity and diet, obesity and high-fat diets are also susceptible to lymphoma.
  • Genetic, has a family member who has a history of lymphoma.
The symptoms and signs of lymphoma 

Following things you might be able to anticipate to be able to diagnose earlier from the occurrence of lymphomas that are getting worse in your body:
  • Enlargement or swelling of lymph nodes that can occur anywhere (groin, neck, head, armpits, etc.)
  • The stomach grows or feels full
  • Fever without apparent cause (can come and go for several weeks without infection)
  • Weight loss of 10 percent of body weight for more than six months
  • Shortness or fatigue
  • Itching of the skin
  • Sweating at night or in cold weather
  • Stomach ache, back or bone pain
  • Feeling tired (fatigue), lack of energy
  • Shivering
  • Loss of appetite
  • Neuropathy, a disorder of the nerves in the body
  • There is blood in the stool or vomit
  • Blockage of urine flow
  • Headache
  • Convulsions

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